Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior problem that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity and, until recently, was diagnosed primarily in kids. It was first defined as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in 1957 and was often called hyperactivity or hyperactive syndrome until it was renamed ADHD in 1987. The renaming also represented a shift in focus from hyperactive behavior towards the inattention as a characteristic that essay writing online is major of disorder.
The centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 7 percent of school-age (6-10) children have ADHD, with a ratio of 3 to 1 boys to girls in the United States. White children generally have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. In the past few years the definition of ADHD has broadened. Now, as well as school-age children, ADHD is diagnosed in preschool children, adolescents, and adults, which contributes to the rising prevalence.
The most common treatment that is medical ADHD is by using psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate (Ritalin) along with other stimulant medications (Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta). Treatment rates have increased enormously in the last few years; in 2004 the Department of Health and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD in 2000-02, up from 2.6 million in 1994. The diagnosis and treatment of ADHD is significantly higher in the United States compared to other countries, but evidence shows that considering that the 1990s it is often rising in other countries as well, for instance, in the United Kingdom.
What causes ADHD are not well understood, although various theories have been offered, including dietary, genetic, psychological, and social ones. In past times 2 decades, medical lab researchers have reported genetic susceptibilities to ADHD and discovered differences in brain imaging results from people with ADHD and individuals without ADHD. The causes of ADHD are still largely unknown although bio-medical theories of ADHD predominate. Some contend that regardless if there are biological differences between children with ADHD along with other children, what exactly is observed may be a reflection of differences in temperament rather than a specific disorder.
ADHD and its particular treatment have been controversial at least since the 1970s.
Critics have expressed anxiety about the drugging of schoolchildren, contending that ADHD is just a label for childhood deviant behavior. Others grant that some children might have a neurological disorder, but maintain that there has been an overdiagnosis of ADHD. Some educators and parents have raised concerns about adverse effects from long-term use of stimulant medications from time to time. Child psychiatrists see ADHD as the most childhood that is common disorder and consider psychoactive medication treatment as well established and safe. Parent and consumer groups, such as for instance CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), have a tendency to support the perspective that is medical of.
Because the 1990s there is a rise that is significant the diagnosis and remedy for adult ADHD. Whereas childhood ADHD is usually school or parent identified, adult ADHD seems to be largely self-identified. Some researchers have noted that numerous apparently successful adults seek an ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment as a result of learning about the disorder from professionals, the media, or others, after which seeing their particular life problems reflected in the description of ADHD (e.g., disorganized life, inability to sustain attention, moving from job to job). Adult ADHD remains controversial, however. Many psychiatrists have embraced adult ADHD as a significant social problem, with claims of tens of billions of dollars in lost productivity and household income as a result of disorder, whereas critics have suggested it is “the medicalization of underperformance.”
Sociologists view ADHD as a classic case regarding the medicalization of deviant behavior, defining a previously nonmedical problem as a medical one plus the treatment of ADHD as a kind of medical control that is social.
Whereas some have pointed out that when a challenge becomes medicalized it is less stigmatized, because its origin is seen as physiological or biomedical as opposed to as linked to behavior that is volitional others point out the social consequences of medicalizing children’s behavior problems. Some have suggested that medicalizing deviant behavior as ADHD individualizes complex social problems and allows for powerful kinds of medical social control (medications) to be utilized. Secondary gain, accruing social advantages of a medical diagnosis, is also an issue with ADHD. There are reports of adolescents seeking an ADHD diagnosis to gain disability that is learning in order to acquire certain benefits, such as for instance untimed tests or alternative assignments. The definition of ADHD is a prime example of diagnostic expansion, the widening definition of an accepted diagnosis from a sociological view. For some, ADHD has become deemed a lifelong disorder, with an expanding age groups for diagnosis (from preschool to adult) and a lower life expectancy threshold for psychoactive medication treatment. Although it is achievable that the behaviors characteristic of ADHD are increasing because of some type of social cause, it is much more likely that an ever-increasing amount of people are increasingly being identified, labeled, and treated as having ADHD.